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The Eye

Evolved? Designed? Or both?  "Could the eye evolve?"   "Half an Eye?"

A human eye is extremely complicated. How could it have been produced by evolution?

In evolution, the intermediate stages would have to have an advantage at each stage, and what possible advantage would half an eye be?

Many people over the years have come up with this objection to evolution 'By means of Natural selection'.  The first objection of this type I am aware of was in a book published on November 24th 1859.  I would like to quote from this book, please excuse the length of the quotation:

'To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree.  Yet reason tells me that if numerous graduations from a perfect and complex eye to one very imperfect and simple, each grade being useful to its possessor, can be shown to exist'.

This quote is from the first edition of the book 'On the Origin of Species' by Charles Darwin.  Darwin goes on to give examples of animals with light sensitive organs from a nerve slightly sensitive to light, through an animal, such as the planarian, with a light sensitive patch, to the most complex eye.

So 'half an eye' does not need to be an intermediate stage, and I would only expect opponents of the theory of evolution to suggest it.  I suggest that some of the people who bring up the 'half an eye' objection might never even have read the book: 'On the Origin of Species'.

Darwin did not have a computer, but much more recently, the evolution of the eye has been modeled on computer.   The computer was programmed to start with the simplest light sensitive organ, generate random variations, and choose the one that appeared most advantageous, then do the same with this variation.  The computer came up with an actual eye surprisingly quickly.

However, showing that the eye could have evolved without such absurdity as 'half an eye' at any stage is not proof that this is how eyes came about.  Naturally, God could have created eyes as well as everything else.  The Holy Bible could be interpreted in ways that make evolution impossible.  However, the Holy Bible can be interpreted in many ways, including ways completely compatible with evolution.  Most Christians belong to churches that accept the probability that God made use of evolution in His creation.  They believe that God is not limited.

I will leave the question 'Does God sometimes deliberately influence evolution?' to other people.
and:        Darwin's Doubts